What worked for me:
- Login to laptop using cached, old password.
- Connect via VPN.
- Open Command Prompt
- Type ‘runas /user:<DOMAIN>\<USERNAME> cmd’
- Enter new password.
- Close both Command Prompts.
- Wait a few minutes. Shortly after, you should get the notification area pop-up with the set of keys icon with notice “Windows Needs Your Current Credentials
Please lock this computer, then unlock it using your most recent password or smart card”.
- Locked the computer.
- Unlock with new password.